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"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing"
Edmund Burke

[page 1566]
In John H. Harland Co. v. Clarke Checks, Inc., 711 F.2d 966, 972 (11th Cir.1983), the Eleventh Circuit identified seven factors relevant to whether a likelihood of confusion exists between two marks (which also applies to likelihood of confusion between trade dress): the type of mark, the similarity of design, the similarity of the product, the identity of retail outlets and purchasers, the similarity of advertising media used, defendant's intent, and actual confusion. See also AmBrit, Inc. v. Kraft, Inc., 812 F.2d 1531, 1545 (11th Cir.1986) (affirming district court's finding of trade dress infringement), cert. denied, 481 U.S. 1041, 107 S.Ct. 1983, 95 L.Ed.2d 822 (1987); Exxon Corp. v. Texas Motor Exchange, Inc., 628 F.2d 500, 504 (5th Cir.1980); Rolex Watch U.S.A., Inc. v. Canner, 645 F.Supp. 484, 488 (S.D.Fla.1986). The Court need not, however, find that all seven factors exist before it can grant preliminary injunctive relief. Rolex Watch, 645 F.Supp. at 495. Furthermore, "[t]he likelihood of confusion is not limited to confusion at the initial point of sale; it can be at any point in the chain of distribution or ownership, [page 1567] including post-sale confusion of third parties who later encounter the product." Joy Mfg. Co. v. CGM Valve & Gauge Co., Inc., 730 F.Supp. 1387, 1394 (S.D.Tex.1989) (citing Lois Sportswear, U.S.A., Inc. v. Levi Strauss & Co., 799 F.2d 867, 872 (2d Cir. 1986)); Rolex Watch U.S.A. v. Forrester, 2 U.S.P.Q.2d 1292, 1295, 1986 WL 15668 (S.D.Fla.1986).


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